Diagnostic, therapeutic, industrial and other uses of radiation have contributed to the safety and quality of life for all Victorians. The use of radiation does, however, involve hazards. This is particularly true if radiation is used inappropriately or unnecessarily.

The department administers the provisions of the Radiation Act 2005. The Radiation Act establishes a system of licensing users of radiation apparatuses and managers of radiation practices.

Use licences authorise the holder to use specified types of radiation sources for a specified purpose. Management licences must be held by the person, in most cases a company, who conducts a radiation practice. A radiation practice can include the possession, transport, disposal or sale of radiation sources.

Prescribed radiation sources must be issued with a certificate of compliance. These certificates can only be issued by a person approved by the department ('approved testers').

The department must be notified about any radiation safety-related incidents.