The Department of Health and Human Services administers the provisions of the Radiation Act 2005, which establishes a system of licensing users of radiation apparatus and managers of radiation practices. Anyone working with radioactive material must hold a valid licence.

Potentially hazardous (high-consequence) radioactive sources must be secured, to ensure that they cannot be misused. Legislation aims to limit opportunities for, and enhance detection of, the illegal or unauthorised use of high-consequence radioactive sources.

The transport of radioactive materials also brings with it special considerations. Methods used to transport radioactive material are subject to legislation and codes of practice.